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• Friedlander P., What is Visual Music?, 1998

• Ox J., and Keefer C., On Curating Recent Digital Abstract Visual Music, Center for Visual Music, 2006-08



1. The Beginnings


Colour Music Light, The Strand Archive, 1991

Musica per gli occhi. Immagini per gli orecchi


2. Music and Early Twentieth-Century Painting

Colour Music in Australia: De-mystifying De Maistre

• Joseph C., After 391: Picabia’s early multimedia experiments, 2008

• Rothman R. I., “Between Music and the Machine: Francis Picabia and the End of Abstraction,” tout-fait, Vol. 2, 4, 2002


3. Luminous Instruments

• Baranoff-Rossine W., Optophonic Piano

• Bird J., and Di Paolo E., Gordon Pask and His Maverick Machines, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, 2009

• “Birth of Music Visualization,” Modern Mechanix, 1924

• Carosone P., Audiokinetic Works


• Collopy F., Pioneers, RhythmicLight, 2004

Cybernetic Serendipity

• “Flashlight Beams Make Music On Photo-Electric Marimba,” Modern Mechanix, 1935

• Holzer, D., Tonewheels, UMATIC, 2010

• Jewansky J. Color – Light – Music: Synesthesia and Colorlight Music, 2008

• Keefer C., “Space Light Art” – Early Abstract Cinema and Multimedia, 1900-1959, in Edmonds E., and Stubbs M. (eds.), White Noise, Exhibition Catalogue, Melbourne, Vic.: Australian Center for the Moving Image, 2005


Lumia Grande

Mary Elizabeth Hallock Greenewalt papers, Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 2008

• Moritz W., “The Dream of Color Music, And Machines That Made it Possible,” Animation World Network, 1997

• “‘Musiclite’ Invention Plays Piano Notes in Color Tones,” Modern Mechanix, 1931

• “New ‘Light Piano’ Using Photo Electric Cells Creates All Musical Sounds,” Modern Mechanix, 1931

• “Odd Designs on Film Turn to Music,” Modern Mechanix, 1933

• “Organ Creates Photocell Music,” Modern Mechanix, 1934

• Schöffer N., Sonic and Visual Structures: Theory and Experiment

• “Seeing Music In Colors,” Modern Mechanix, 1915

• “The ‘Telecolor’ Translates Music Into Light,” Modern Mechanix, 1931

• West of Center – Interview with Michael Scroggins, Single Wing Turquoise Bird, YouTube, 2011

The World’s Largest List of Psychedelic Lightshows

• Yamane C., Sharing Images through the Haptic Sense: The Theory of Hirschfeld-Mack’s Color-Light-Play, Centre for Advanced Research on Logic and Sensibility, Keio University


4. Abstract Films

Articulated Light – The Emergence of Abstract Film in America, Harvard Film Archive, 1974-79

• Brakhage M., On Stan Brackage and Visual Music, Vantage Point, 2008

• Camper F., A Review of Stan Brakhage’s Last Films, 2003

• Collopy F., Pioneers, RhythmicLight, 2004

• Corra B., Abstract Cinema – Chromatic Music

• Della Marina A., Il rapporto suono-colore nella metodologia di Luigi Veronesi

• Elder R. B., “Hans Richter and Viking Eggeling: The Dream of Universal Language and the Birth of The Absolute Film

• Engel J., Experimental Animation – The Joy of Movement, Center for Visual Music

• Engel J., Reflections: Graphic Choreography, New Magazine, vol. 10

• Haller R. A., Jim Davis: Visions of Convergence, Anthology Film Archives, New York, 1998

James Whitney Retrospective, Canadian International Animation Festival, Toronto, 1984

Jim Davis: Motion, Color, Light, Film

• Jordan R., “Brakhage’s Silent Legacy for Sound Cinema,” Off Screen, 2003

• Lapowsky B. F., “Oscillons: Electronic Abstractions,” Atari Archives, 1975

• Moritz W., “Digital Harmony: The Life of John Whitney, Computer Animation Pioneer,” Animation World Network, 1997

• Moritz W., “Jordan Belson: Last of the Great Masters,” Animation Journal, 1999

Oskar Fischinger Biography, 2006

• PoliCardo, Ginna e Corra, 2006

• Richter H., “Easel—Scroll—Film,” Magazine of Art, 1952

• Rubin H. E., and Katz E., “Auroratone Films for the Treatment of Psychotic Depressions in an Army General Hospital,” 1946

• Stehura J., Home Page for a Cybernetic Cinema

• Tan Y., The Unknown Art of Jordan Belson,” Animation Journal, 1999


5. Music and Abstract Art


Hearing Varèse’s Poème Électronique inside a virtual Philips Pavillion, Eleventh Meeting of the International Conference on Auditory Display, Limerick, Ireland, 2005

• Holzer D., “Tonewheels,” Umatic, 2010

• Spinello B., “On Sound and Image as a Single Entity,” Off Screen, 2007


6. Electronic Art

• Bainbridge, B. An interview with Carol Goss and Walter Wright, 1998

Dream House: Sound and Light Environment

Film Image/Electronic Image: The Construction of Abstraction, 1960–1990

• Gigliotti D., “The Annotated Video Exhibition List (1963–1975),” The Early Video Project

• Goss C., Driven To Abstraction, Improvart, 1998

• Hagen C., and Kite L., “Walter Wright and his amazing video machine,” Afterimage, 1975

• Rosebush J., Interview with Jud Yalkut, 1972

• Spielmann Y., Video and Computer: The Aesthetics of Steina and Woody Vasulka, 1972

Steina and Woody Vasulka

The Pepsi Pavilion: Laboratory for Social Experimentation, Daniel Langlois Foundation, 2003

• Thompson S., Jud Yalkut: A Video Beachcomber, 2006

• Vasulka W., Aldo Tambellini, 1969

• Vasulka W., Bill Etra & Steve Rutt, 1973

• Vasulka W., Bill Hearn, 1969

• Vasulka W., Eric Siegel, 1971

• Yalkut J., Electronic Zen: The Alternative Video Generation Jud Yalkut Interviews Eric Siegel Television Is The Last Communication Link We Have To Change This Country, 1970



7. Animations and Videos

Abstract Film Palimpsests – On the Work of Rey Parla

Billy Roisz

Edward Zajec, Digital Art Museum


Lillian F. Schwartz: TV-interviews

• Moritz W., “The Film Strip Tells All,” Animation World Network, 1998

• Putnam, L. J., The Harmonic Pattern Function: A Mathematical Model Integrating Synthesis of Sound and Graphical Patterns, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2012

• Putnam, L. J., sScale, 2004

Richard Bailey


8. Installations


Contact lenses with circuits, lights a possible platform for superhuman vision, 2008

Fijuu2: a game-based audio-visual performance and composition engine, NIME 2007

Generative Music

Interactive Swarm Space

Myron Krueger – Videoplace, Responsive Environment, 1972–1990s

Plane Scape



9. Performances



Guy Sherwin – Artist interview

Immersive Music Painter

Interview: Mizuguchi Talks Rez HD, Wired, 2008

• Jones, R., A poetics of simulation for audiovisual performance, Computational Aesthetics, 2007

Light Trap, Euro Mediterranean Arts, 2008



10. Language

• Kapuscinski, J., Basic Theory of Intermedia – Composing with Sounds and Images, 2001

• Lafrance A., How Brains See Music as Language, 2014

• Mado Proverbio A., D’Aniello G. E., Adorni R., and Zani A., “When a photograph can be heard: Vision activates the auditory cortex within 110 ms,” Nature, Scientific Reports, 1, 55, 2011

• Sedes A., Courribet B., and Thiébaut J.-B, From the visualization of sound to real-time sonification: different prototypes in the Max/MSP/Jitter environment, Université de Paris VIII – MSH Paris Nord, 2008




• Brang D., and Ramachandran V. S., “Survival of the Synesthesia Gene: Why Do People Hear Colors and Taste Words?,” PLoS Biology, 2011

• Cytowic R. A., “Music and the Brain: Wednesday is Indigo Blue: How Synesthesia Speaks to Creativity?,” Library of Congress, 2009

• Haverkamp M., Visualisation of synaesthetic experience during the early 20th century – an analytic approach, 2003

• Müller A., About my Synaesthesia…, 2006

Synesthesia – Individual differences among grapheme-color synesthetes from different countries

Synesthesia links and references



Audiovisual Art Resources

Center for Visual Music

Daniel Langlois Foundation

Electronic Art Intermix

Experimental Television Center

The iotaCenter




Visual Music

The Visual Music Village